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Low Budget Filmmaking

Visual Effects – Low Budget Filmmaking
Miniatures and Forced Perspective

On 20, Aug 2013 | 35 Comments | In Low Budget Filmmaking, Production | By vashi



In filmmaking, sometimes the simplest solution will be the cheapest, most realistic and easiest. This doesn’t happen often…but when it does, embrace it and enjoy it. In a world where CGI seems to always be the first choice…models and miniatures offer realism and immediate feedback in-camera to let you know if you got the shot. There is a rich history of miniatures and practical visual effects in Hollywood and it will always be a major component of filmmaking at every level. In ‘Close Encounters of the Third Kind’, Steven Spielberg used a model ship in the Mojave Desert of California to double for the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. By placing it close to the camera and using a wide lens with deep-focus…he sold the size and scale of an impossible scenario that visually awed the audience. The secret? Forced perspectiveNo green screens or computers needed.


20-foot long model of the COTOPOXI with actors 1/4 mile away


If Spielberg can get an epic shot like this…I knew I could at least get a believable foreground miniature shot in my film. It’s a feature film titledΒ ‘The Grind’ and it is still in deep post production even though it was shot 3 years ago. As the Executive Producer, DP, Editor, Sound designer and Colorist…my hands are more than full and I keep chipping away whenever I can. ‘The Grind’is a crime drama set in Los Angeles and we shot in over 65 locations. One day soon I will be able to share it with you all! What we needed was a Humvee miniature for a flashback scene that occurs in a desert during the Gulf War. Because we didn’t have access to a real Humvee or the Iraqi desert…we bought a 1:18 scale model Humvee at Walmart for $23.


This 12-inch model Humvee was going to double for the real deal.



Finding the desert location was our next challenge. Living in Los Angeles, we are lucky to have many geographical options within a couple hours distance. The Studios discovered this same fact back in the birth of Hollywood. Not only were there more than 300 days of sunshine a year…but also facsimiles of famous and diverse global locations scattered across Southern California. Here is an old Paramount Studios map that displays the possibilities available to filmmakers.


Paramount Studios 1927 Geomap


We plotted a course for Brawley (California) about 200 miles east of Los Angeles and on the edge of the Imperial Sand Dunes. These sand dunes have doubled for all sorts of deserts in film history, including the little indie film…Return of the Jedi. The home of the Sarlacc and his pit can be found in the Imperial Sand Dunes.


The Imperial Sand Dunes as seen in Return of the Jedi


We picked a weekday so that the chance of dirtbikes and ATVs buzzing through our shots was reduced. During the weekends, they dominate the dunes and their blasting engines would have made recording audio almost impossible as well. We staged an area that work for the scene and I set up both the camera and the model Humvee. Now, in a perfect world, there are formulas and ratios that should be adhered to when using models and forced perspective. The best and most thorough breakdown of how to stage and film miniatures is found in Stu Maschwitz‘s indispensable book The DV Rebel’s Guide. We only had a couple hours of good light and 4 pages of dialog to shoot…so I eyeballed the shot until it looked and felt right. Since I was also acting in the wide shot that established the scene, I had to lock the camera down and hope for the best.


If this works…I’m buying vodka gimlets for everyone.



The wonderful aspect of using models is that once you position them and get your camera angle…they are part of the scene. The sun and your lights strike them naturally and if your perspectives are correct, everything blends together in a seamless fashion. If the model is the slightest bit off, the illusion is ruined and falls apart. In this example, we were shooting on a Panasonic HVX-170 with a 1/3″ sensor at the widest lens setting, so depth of field was not an issue. I was at f/11 and everything from one foot to infinity was in focus. The Humvee was about 2 feet from the camera and the actors were 40 feet away. Here is the Humvee visual effects shot at the beginning of the scene as it plays in the unfinished film.



I was very happy with the outcome and everyone who has viewed it without knowing the secret, asked where we got a Humvee! I think the biggest reason it works is that audio contributed just as much as the visual to sell the effect. On the close-up of the soldier…we hear a metallic sound (the door opening offscreen) and we want to see the source of that sound. As I cut to the wide shot to reveal the Humvee…you hear the door slam and SEE another soldier (me) emerge from behind the Humvee. Because of the audio and deep focus…It feels authentic and looks real. I hope you think so too… At the end of the day, we got our establishing shot in a foreign country with a Humvee all for the price of gas, two pizzas, many beers and the cheapest hotel in Brawley. I would call that Mission Accomplished. If you have used models or forced perspective in your films or have other examples to share from Hollywood films…please do so below in the comments. It’s amazing what you can accomplish when you put your mind to work. Money doesn’t always solve filmmaking obstacles…your creative juices do.




Great forced perspective shot from The Wolf of Wall Street.

forced perspective shot with model helicopter

helicopter model used in The Wolf of Wall Street


Forced perspective shot from The Aviator.

forced perspective airplane in The Aviator

Rob Legato sets us a miniature in The Aviator

Also…keep your eyes open for ‘The Grind’

Coming at some point!

Until next time…


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  1. Nice. Great read. As you mentioned we often forget about the “simple solutions”.

    The result is pretty good. But I think the distances between you and the model wasn’t enough. A few more meters and the illusion would be perfect. Also some scratches and bulges so that it looks like an actual used car in a war region would help πŸ™‚ But as you mentioned the sound helps quiet a lot and I knew where to look to spot the effect.

    There is a great documentary about ILM called “How To Film The Impossible” from 1985 (I think) where they talk about miniatures for Indiana Jones and also optical composites. You could probably find it on youtube.
    Now I should go back and re-read the DV-Rebels Guide πŸ˜‰

    • vashi

      Good comments Pascal! The shot is not finalized yet…I will be adding grunge texture to the static Humvee and also burning oil wells in the wide shot and the POV shots of the scene to really sell the Gulf War. I will track down the doc you mentioned as well…thanks for the heads up!

  2. Very good work. I will try it some day .

    • vashi

      Mark…please feel free to share it with me when you shoot it.

  3. Vashi – great work! Here is that link:

    • vashi

      Thanks Greg! Amazing doc. I need to write a post about it. So much amazing information and techniques.

  4. Michael & Denise Okuda posted this story on FB. You had me fooled. I would have sworn that was a real Hummvee. Now, I have to ask. Gordon Clapp? As is, Medevoy from NYPD Blue?

    • vashi

      Thanks for sharing Kevin. Glad that it had the desired effect of trickery! Yes…the same Gordon Clapp is in The Grind. We also have James Avery (Uncle Phil from Fresh Prince of Bel-air) and Jon Polito among others. Stay tuned…

  5. LOVED this. Now I need to go out and buy some models…

    • vashi

      Much appreciated Ryan. It’s a wonderful option for the cinematic trick bag!

  6. As movie goers, if the story is compelling enough and “you’ve got us to suspend believe” we will completely see past/forgive a lot of things.

    Granted, this one is executed flawlessly. I didn’t really believe it was fake until I saw the 70′ man walk by. πŸ˜‰

    • vashi

      Thank you Leif for the wonderful comment…and I’m glad the effect was convincing enough to make that impact!

  7. Now that’s our kind of film making. Innovative and out of the box. Literally it would seem.

  8. Nice article on this fantastic technique. This is something I am always trying to fine tune, so I definitely appreciate these tips.

    Here is a shot I took with an action figure at arms length using forced perspective to insert him into a memorial day demonstration.

    Although, I really like the suggestions you’ve given here about integrating this technique into video combining the right sounds and mixing in close up shots to sell the scene for the ultimate effect.

    Thanks for the inspiration!

  9. Hey bro, you are amazing. Your article have solved my problem. Thanks for sharing

    • vashi

      My pleasure Atom. Thanks for the kind comment…very much appreciated!

  10. Good job Vashi, it looks realistic. I am working on building a small set on a table in my garage. got to get some small rocks, stones, sand and debris, and build it like a pile of rubble by the side of a road. Add some toy cars and trucks from the local second hand shop. I want to experiment with burning oil in grease inside one of the vehicles to that it produces dark smoke. I will lay it out on green screen cardboard so that i can add a background. In the foreground i want to film an actor on a dirt road and position it in front of the rubble. No limit to the creative mind. All the best to you Vashi and look forwards to seeing more of your work. Abby

    • vashi

      Thanks so much Abby and please share the result with me when you can. Practical effects when done with love and care just feels so real. Best of luck to you too!

  11. An excellent explanation of forced perspective! Thank you. Your movie looks great and what fun to produce too. I think the humvee looked so real.

    Here are some tweaks I’d like to see, but not essential as it is great already! – Something up close but blurred out, like a green screened scorpion in the lower bottom third of the picture would look cool, plus partially blurring (like a fine 10% blur – nothing glaring – with a blur plug-in) the humvee and toning the saturation of the humvee down by 10% might be a good experiment as colours tend to fade with distance. But on it’s own it’s already A1 grade material on its own. I love it.

    I’d just like to add that in the movie I’m just finishing filming called Isolation 119 (you can find the trailer on youtube) I used a green mattress cover for a green screen lol and achieved some great visual effects just using a prosumer Canon M400 video camera. I purchased some cheap lighting, pegs and bulbs etc from DIY stores and used FCPX to make a movie on a $2000 dollar budget which includes all the equipment costs and camera purchase. You can really learn a lot just by watching movies and pausing the video when you see something interesting and make a mental note of it. Plus great posts like this by fellow indie movie makers who explain and walk the walk techniques that push the envelope.

    Once again, thank you for your advice and I will try this out – it looks such good fun.

    Do you have a ‘people to contact who have expressed an interest in my movie’ list? If so please put me on it. I’ll be sure to post a 100% upfront, no holds barred review of you movie wherever you put it up.

    I can”t wait till your movie is ready and please send me an email message when it is finished as I genuinely want to see it and just love indie movies as they push up against dogmatic ‘if it works keep doing it type movies, which I have to say Hollywood like, unless it’s a well known director who pushes the envelope.

    Plus, you guys look fit. What is your workout regime?

    Cheers guys πŸ™‚

  12. Great work. I also have found that there a lot of great model clubs out there that are more than delighted to help create models for an independent film. I have even run a contest where I had a handful of model builders share their creations and then I could pick the best to be featured in my project. One of the reasons I really like using these clubs is that some of these people are extremely talent in weathering and detailed paint jobs. Far less expensive than cgi and much quicker.

  13. Very cool. I’m going to be working with miniatures on an upcoming shoot and this has given me a lot of ideas.

  14. I am astounded by the effectiveness of your Humvee shot. I have a scene in a film I’m making after the next which features a flood, so I’m looking into how I might do that practically. Yes I know they could probably do that quite well in a computer, it wouldn’t necessarily be future proof. CGI dates in unpredictable ways as our minds become more sensitive to synthetic movement.

    • vashi

      I always prefer practical effects and in-camera shots if possible. There is a degree of realism that just feels right! The cost is lower too if you plan and execute the shots properly. Best of luck!

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